Ms Peters joined the Young Christian Students where her political activism started. While there, she participated in Youth Formations in the church and community and she became the Deputy Chairperson of the Women’s Forum in AZASO which later became SASCO at the University of the North. She also became a member of the Galeshewe Youth Congress, an affiliate of the United Democratic Front (UDF).
In 1987 Ms Peters worked as a volunteer regional organiser for the South African Domestic Worker’s Union, where her responsibility among others was to deal with recruiting, organising, educating and counseling domestic workers in the Northern Cape. She also a headed the Women’s Department at the South African Youth Congress from 1987 to 1990. She was a Woman Organiser of the National Executive Council (NEC) of South African Youth Congress SAYCO) from 1987 to 1990.
Ms Peters joined the African National Congress Youth League as the secretary for Women Affairs in 1990 and she became a member of the Provincial National Youth Committee (PNYC) between 1990 and 1991.
She was also employed by NCCR a United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) structure that was responsible for the repatriation of political exiles and re-intergration of political prisoners after the unbanning of political organisations. Ms Peters has also worked as a social worker for the NCCR, her tasks included liaising with other organizations on behalf of the Committee in the Northern Cape. She was also administering grants for the disabled, aged and un-accompanied minors, here her responsibilities included, proposing and implemention of service plans for the individuals and groups of returnees during the period 1992 and 1994.
Between 1994 and 1997, Ms Peters was a member of Parliament in the National Assembly and was responsible for the Northern Cape and ANC membership/Caucus Register. During that she served as a member of the Portfolio Committees on Home Affairs, Public Works, Social Services and Health.
She was a Provincial Deputy Chairperson of ANC from May to December 2003; a Deputy Chairperson in the Northern Cape, and later acting Provincial Chairperson in 2004, before becoming a Provincial Chairperson from December 2003 to December 2007.
Ms Peters has served as a member of Provincial Executive of the ANC in the Northern Cape in 1996; and as Chief Whip in the Northern Cape Provincial Legislature from 1997 to 1999. She has also served as Treasurer for the Northern Cape Province from 1997 to 2003. She was a Provincial Deputy Chairperson of ANC from May to December 2003; a Deputy Chairperson of the ANC in the Northern Cape, and later acting Provincial Chairperson in 2004 before becoming a Provincial Chairperson of (ANC) from December 2003 to December 2007. Ms Peters has also served as a member of Executive Council (MEC) for Health from 1999 to 2004 and as a Premier of the Northern Cape Province from 22 April 2004 to 10 May 2009 before her appointment as a minister of Energy.
Ms Elizabeth Dipuo Peters was the Minister of Energy of the Republic of South Africa from 11 May 2009 until 09 July 2013.